RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is a form of wireless communication that uniquely identifies objects, animals or people using a combination of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
1.How do RFID tags work?
Every RFID system consists of three components: a scanning antenna, a transceiver and a transponder. When the scanning antenna and transceiver are combined, they are called RFID readers or interrogators. there are two types of RFID readers - fixed readers and mobile readers. an RFID reader is a network-connected device that can be portable or permanently connected. It uses radio waves to transmit the signal that activates the tag. Once activated, the tag sends an echo to the antenna, where it is converted into data.
The transponder is located in the RFID tag itself. The read range of an RFID tag varies depending on the type of tag, the type of reader, the RFID frequency and the surrounding environment or interference from other RFID tags and readers, etc. Tags with a stronger power supply also have a longer read range.
2.RFID tags and smart tags
RFID tags are composed of an integrated circuit (IC), an antenna and a substrate. the part of the RFID tag that encodes the identification information is called the RFID inlay.
There are two main types of RFID tags: active RFID, where the active RFID tag has its own power source, usually a battery; and passive RFID, where the passive RFID tag receives power from a reading antenna, where electromagnetic waves from the reading antenna induce a current in the RFID tag's antenna. There are also semi-passive RFID tags, which means that the battery runs the circuit while the communication is powered by the RFID reader. Low power, embedded non-volatile memory plays an important role in every RFID system. RFID tags typically contain less than 2,000KB of data, including a unique identifier/serial number, and the tag can be read-only or read-write, where the data can be added by the reader or overwrite existing data.
The read range of RFID tags varies depending on the tag type, reader type, RFID frequency and factors such as the surrounding environment or interference from other RFID tags and readers. Active RFID tags have a longer read range than passive RFID tags due to the stronger power supply. Smart tags are simple RFID tags that have an RFID label embedded in a self-adhesive label with a barcode, and RFID and barcode readers can also use them. Smart labels can be printed on-demand using a desktop printer, whereas RFID tags require more advanced equipment.